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What Is Shot Blasting?

Shot blasting is a surface treatment technique that makes use of particulate grains propelled under high velocity.

This process is a highly effective solution for the removal of contamination on metal substrates, changing the coarseness or smoothness of a surface, and providing surface preparation for coating. Force in which the abrasive is propelled can be generated either centrifugally, using a wheel spinning at a high RPM, or pneumatically through the medium of compressed fluid or air.

What media should you use for shot blasting? Learn about blast abrasive from Airblast Eurospray

Technically, shot blasting refers specifically to a process that uses spherical particles. Not to be confused with grit blasting which uses angular or sub-angular grains.

The Importance of Breathing Air Quality Tests by Airblast Eurospray

What Does The Term Blast Media Mean and What Abrasive Is Right For Me?

“Media” is the common term used when describing the abrasive, which can come in many variations. Abrasive type is determined by these characteristics the grade (the size of the media), hardness (measured in Mohs), shape (spherical or angular), and mineral composition. Each of these factors affects the finished surface profile. For assistance when selecting media that’s right for you, please contact our sales team.

What media should you use for shot blasting? Learn about blast abrasive from Airblast Eurospray
What is shot blasting?

Types Of Blasting

Grit Blasting

While Grit blasting is sometimes used as a general term for the process of cleaning or providing a profile on a hard surface. “Grit” blasting specifically means blasting with angular or sub-angular particles. The effect of using grit abrasive is like that of using sandpaper, although grit blasting provides a more even finish and is ultimately a much faster process.

Wet Blasting

Wet blasting is favoured for maritime and outdoor applications due to the cushioning effect of the water which reduces the amount of dust created. Wet blasting has a much slower cleaning action in comparison to air-only systems and can cause “flash rusting” on certain ferrous surfaces.

Wet blasting
Wheel Blasting Machines by Airblast Eurospray

Bead Blasting or Shot Peening

Bead blasting, also known as “shot peening”, is a process of using circular media to dimple the surface of an object. Shot peening is like grit blasting but works on the mechanism of plasticity rather than abrasion, which removes less material and generates less dust. Additionally, shot peening is used to relieve the tensile stress of metal and composites, increasing its compressive strength. This process is usually reserved for delicate machine components such as gear parts, suspension springs, and turbine blades.

Wheel Blasting

Wheel blasting uses centrifugal force to propel media against a surface. A spinning wheel rotates at exceptional speeds to throw abrasive in a self-contained cage. Wheel blasting is often described as an airless blasting operation because of the lack of compressive propellant. It is a highly efficient form of surface preparation, that makes use of recyclable media for prolonged operation. However, this form of blasting lends itself to repeated shapes/products and is not as versatile as a booth designed for pneumatic blasting.

Wheel Blasting Machines by Airblast Eurospray
Airblast Eurospray Blast Pots

Equipment Types

Blast Pots

Mobile blast systems, or “blast pots” are compressor-fed, pneumatic machines, filled with abrasive material. Abrasive is held inside a pressurised vessel and is ejected out of a hose, manipulated by the operator. The operator can control the flow of media through the use of a deadman handle.

Blast Cabinets

Blast cabinets are a small closed-loop system designed for smaller component processing. Cabinets exclusively use recyclable abrasive and have four individual modules; the containment (cabinet), the abrasive recycling system, the blasting abrasive, and the dust collector. Operators are able to manipulate comments and the blast hose inside through the use of rubber gloves integrate into the cabinet wall. A viewing window above the gloves allows the operator to view what they are working on. Blast cabinets can either work with a pressurised pot or a suction system which inducts media into an air stream and blasts at lower pressures.

Airblast Eurospray Blast Cabinet
Airblast Eurospray Blast Rooms
Blast Rooms by Airblast Eurospray

Blast Rooms

Blast rooms are a much larger version of a blast cabinet used for heavy industrial applications. Operators need to be trained to work in these rooms. Inside, the operator roughens, smooths, or cleans surfaces of a component, depending on the needs of the finished product. Blast rooms come in a range of sizes and can accommodate very large or uniquely shaped objects, such as rail cars, commercial or military vehicles, construction equipment, ship sections, and aircraft. Blast rooms (and cabinets) can also be automated. This is achieved by installing a conveyance system and robotic nozzles inside.

Blast rooms have several key components, such as an enclosure – this being the room. This is sealed while blasting to prevent blast media from escaping. There is also a pneumatic blast system, or several systems, as described above. The blast system features a remote abrasive shut off and a dust collection system, which filters the air in the room and prevents particulate matter from escaping. It also has a media recycling or media reclamation system to collect abrasive blasting media, regrade it, and deliver it back to the blast machine for reuse. These reclamation systems come in various levels of complexity. The simplest type is filled manually and elevates the media to a hopper. The more complex type includes a full-floor recovery system that totally eradicates the need for manual recovery of blast media.

Media Types

There are a large number of media types to consider when grit blasting and each has a different effect on the substrate they are used on. As you gain experience in the field of shot blasting, you will get to know the media types and the tasks they are commonly associated with. For example, some cannot be used on certain surfaces i.e., ferrous media on a nonferrous substrate. Certain media types are more aggressive than others. A number are favoured because they provide specific cosmetic finishes. Some are intended to relieve tensile stress, and others are suited to being reclaimed and used again.

What media should you use for shot blasting? Learn about blast abrasive from Airblast Eurospray
Blast Rooms by Airblast Eurospray

Machine Type Also Affects Media Choice

Before blasting it is vital to consider the material you’re working with and the machine you’re using. Both factors will define the media you can use to complete the job without damaging the component in the process. For instance, when removing heavy corrosion on large steel ferrous sheets, a harder more aggressive aggregate such as chilled iron would be an appropriate choice for a blast booth.

However, when using a portable blast machine, copper slag would be a better choice as it is an expendable abrasive that cannot be reclaimed and reused. This makes it more cost effective than using a non-expendable abrasive in an portable blast setup. However, both chilled iron and copper slag can clean the material well and provide a great finish.

Contact Us

To find out more about blast media before purchasing, please get in touch with us via our Contact page.

Alternatively, visit our online shop and view our range of blast media and abrasives for sale.

Finally, why not call our sales team on +44 (0)1778 560 650 and they will be happy to advise you.